|— Village —|
|Country||Kingdom of Scotland|
|Purpose||Village in Galloway (Node)|
Dumfries was the capital city of Galloway, and a forest town. It is connected by roads to Kirkcudbright and the English border county of Cumberland. Wigtown followed it as Capital of Galloway when population problems caused the town to be closed.
Dumfries (from Gaelic, meaning either fort or ridge of the thicket) was founded as a Royal Burgh in 1186 on the east side of the lowest crossing point of the River Nith. The location was around a mile downstream from Lincluden Abbey but on the opposite bank of the Nith. This religious house was founded circa. 1160 and was used for various purposes.
The land west of the Nith, only securely became part of Scotland during Alexander II's reign in 123. Dumfries was very much on the frontier during its first 50 years and it grew rapidly as a market town and port.
The royal castle was built in the 13th century.
Before becoming King of Scots, Robert the Bruce slew his rival the Red Comyn at Greyfriars Kirk in the town on 10 February 1306. His uncertainty about the fatality of his stabbing caused one of his followers, Roger de Kirkpatrick, to utter the famous, "I mak siccar" ("I make sure") and finish the Comyn off.
Robert the Bruce was excommunicated as a result, less for the murder than for its location but nonetheless was crowned King of Scots barely seven weeks after. Bruce later triumphed at the Battle of Bannockburn and led Scotland to independence.